Get random string in PHP

pass the string(char/number) and number of char you want in output.
function get_random_string($valid_chars, $length)
$random_string = “”;
$num_valid_chars = strlen($valid_chars);
for ($i = 0; $i < $length; $i++)
$random_pick = mt_rand(1, $num_valid_chars);
$random_char = $valid_chars[$random_pick-1];
$random_string .= $random_char;
return $random_string;


function get_random_string($characters,$length)
$string = “”;
for ($p = 0; $p < $length; $p++) {
$string.= $characters[mt_rand(0, strlen($characters))];

return $string;




bin sh not found err for newly created user in Ubuntu

I created new user using command line as , $adduser [ new username]

After login in shell using the new user name, I unable to use my shell commands normally.
Eg: The shell doesn’t show the current working path, it will show $ only.

I searched on the web and I found some solution

$cd /etc/
$sudo cp passwd passwd.backup // copy as backup
$sudo gedit passwd

find line like /home/[new username]:/bin/sh
replace as /home/[new username]:/bin/bash

save and quite . Now working perfect. 🙂


It is simple enough to get the XPDO inner join query in MODX.

The following example is to get the values form Table1 were Table1 name is equal to Table2 name.

$query = $modx->newQuery('table1');
'' => 'Mark',
$result= $modx->getCollection('table1',$query);